The Earth is one of four terrestrial (Earth-like) planets. Our Moon would be considered a planet if it wasn’t in orbit around the Earth. All five of these worlds (four

The Earth is one of four terrestrial (Earth-like) planets.  Our Moon would be considered a planet if it wasn’t in orbit around the Earth.  All five of these worlds (four planets and one moon) are composed of rock and metal.  All five have been affected by impacts and volcanism.  The purpose of this lab is to explore some of the ways in which these objects are similar and different. A basic property of planets is their size. To compare sizes, we can compare the diameter (distance from one side to the other) of one planet to another, or we can compare the radius (half the diameter) of one planet to another. Size comparison is better shown graphically than with numbers. Table 1. The average diameters of the terrestrial worlds in kilometers (km) MercuryVenusEarthMoonMars487912,10412,74234756779 Table 1 gives the average diameters for the terrestrial worlds in kilometers.  Use this data to plot circles representing the different planets to their correct sizes on the graph paper provided ( ; ; also shown below before the video). The video below shows how to do this.  Use a different color for each circle. Clearly identify which circle corresponds to which planet (labels or keys to colors). The video below attempts to show you how to draw the planets’ sizes on the graph paper, but refuses to be centered in this box. read the assignment instructions that follow Table 1, and watch the example of how to do this in the video.  Complete this assignment and upload it to the assignment box (link below). UPLOAD TO FOR LAB 4 – Planet-Sizes Lab 4: Question 1 SHORT ESSAY: Spend a bit of time looking at the graph you’ve created. Describe the variation that you see for the sizes of these worlds. This should be at least a paragraph, not just a sentence or two.  This is worth 5 points (regular questions are worth 1 point). A uses color coding to indicate the relative elevation (highs and lows) of landforms, such as plains, volcanoes, impact craters, etc.  Generally, violet and blue are used for low elevations, shades of green for average elevations, and yellow/brown/orange/red/white for high elevations.  Maps should include a key indicating which color corresponds to what elevation.  Unfortunately, not all maps include a key. Be sure you have read , which covers the four geologic processes that shape the surfaces of the terrestrial worlds. While all four processes occur on all planets, moons, and smaller objects that have solid surfaces, one or two may dominate (be most important) for shaping a surface. This is most apparent when looking at a topographic map of the entire world. One thing to keep in mind is that any map will show you a distorted view of a planet’s surface, because it is difficult to project a spherical surface onto a flat one. Lab 4: Question 2 Look at the topographic map of Mercury (Figure 2). Which of the four geologic processes that shape the surface of a planet are the most obvious for Mercury at this scale (looking at a global topographic map)? •  Impact Cratering •  Volcanism •  Tectonics •  Erosion Lab 4: Question 3 TRUE or FALSE:  Based on Figure 2, the higher elevations are distributed evenly over the surface of Mercury. Lab 4: Question 4 Looking at the elevation scale on the right of Figure 2, what is the total change in elevation (in meters) on the surface of Mercury (from lowest to highest elevation)? Enter a single number only. [nt: you should look at the elevation scale for this information – what you can actually see depends on how large or small you make the image.] Now look at rotating model of Mercury below, which gives you a more representative view of the surface than does a flat map. Credit: Lab 4: Question 5 TRUE or FALSE:  Based on the rotating model above, the higher elevations of Mercury are distributed evenly over the surface of Mercury. The maria (Latin for “seas”) on the Moon are darker colored regions, that are formed from large flat basaltic lava flows that filled in very large impact basins.  The lighter colored regions on the Moon are composed of a lighter colored rock, and are known as the lunar highlands. Lab 4: Question 6 Look at the topographic map of the Moon (Figure 3), and identify the regions which are maria (using the labeled photograph of the near side).  The maria occur at an elevation __________ the average (zero or 0) elevation on the Moon (given by a light gray color). •  above •  below •  commonly both above and below •  exactly at Lab 4: Question 7 Looking at the elevation scale for Figure 3, what is the total change in elevation (in meters) on the surface of the Moon (from lowest to highest elevation)? Enter a single number only. Lab 4: Question 8 Looking at the bottom right of Figure 3, where do the very lowest elevations on the Moon occur? •  northern hemisphere on the near side of the Moon •  northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon •  southern hemisphere on the near side of the Moon •  southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon We covered impact craters and how they can be used to determine the age of a surface in and . Lab 4: Question 9 The pair of images in the bottom of Figure 3 are best for answering this question.  Looking at the region with the lowest elevation that you identified in Question 8, this region is •  similar in age to the maria on the near side of the Moon •  similar in age to the highlands on the far side of the Moon •  much younger than the maria on the near side of the Moon •  much older than the highlands on the far side of the Moon Lab 4: Question 10 Compare the total range of elevations for Mercury (Question 4) and the Moon (Question 7).  The total range from lowest to highest elevations on the Moon is __________ than the total range from lowest to highest elevations on Mercury. •  almost the same (within 1000 meters) •  significantly greater (closer to double) •  significantly less (closer to half) Lab 4: Question 11 Compare the flat topographic maps of Mercury and the Moon (Figure 2 and the top of Figure 3).  Is the distribution of high and low elevations spread around the Moon’s surface similar (very close) to the distribution of high and low elevations spread around the surface of Mercury. •  yes •  no Venus and Earth are the largest terrestrial planets, which means they are the two most geologically-active terrestrial planets.  Similar in size, both have substantial atmospheres. Lab 4: Question 12 Looking at the elevation scale for Figure 4, what is the total change in elevation ( ) on the surface of Venus (from lowest to highest elevation)? Enter a single number only. Lab 4: Question 13 Examine Figure 4.  Which of the following processes are visible in a global topographic map of Venus?  Choose all that apply. •  volcanism (see small high spots that are individual volcanoes) •  tectonics (see narrow rift valleys or trenches) •  impacts (see numerous round depressions that are impact craters) Lab 4: Question 14 Looking at the elevation scale for Figure 5, what is the total change in elevation (in meters) on the surface of the Earth (from lowest to highest elevation)? Enter a single number only. Lab 4: Question 15 Examine Figure 5.  Which one of the following processes is most visible in a global topographic map of Earth? •  volcanism (see small high spots that are individual volcanoes) •  tectonics (see narrow rift valleys or trenches, see very long thin ridges) •  impacts (see numerous round depressions that are impact craters) Lab 4: Question 16 Compare the total range of elevations for Venus (Question 12) and Earth (Question 14).  The total range from lowest to highest elevations on Venus is __________ than the total range from lowest to highest elevations on Earth. •  almost the same (within 1000 meters) •  significantly greater (closer to double) •  significantly less (closer to half) Lab 4: Question 17 The highest elevations on Earth are marked in red (Figure 5).  Some of these regions are mountain ranges (malayas, Andes, etc.).  There are two regions (Greenland and Antarctica) that are not mountain ranges.  Why are these regions so high?  You will need to do some research online to answer this.  Write a short paragraph in the box provided and include the URL that was the source for your information.  You will not get credit for your answer without a citation/URL. [This question is worth 5 points]. “A hypsometric curve is essentially a graph that shows the proportion of land area that exists at various elevations by plotting relative area against relative height.” Quote from . There are two related graphs that scientists use for this information.  One is a histogram that shows the amount of area for on specific elevation; the other is a cumulative hypsometric (also called hypsographic) curve that totals to 100% for the entire surface of a planet.  Some graphs put elevation on the x-axis and area on the y-axis, while other graphs switch the x-y axis (as in the example Figure 6 below). Figure 7 (below) shows hypsometric data in histogram form for Earth and Venus.  Note that the x- and y-axes on the graphs below are opposite those in Figure 6. The Earth shows two distinct peaks in Figure 7.  The peak on the left represents the oceanic crust on Earth, while the peak on the right represents the continental crust on the Earth.  Continental crust on Earth formed as a result of plate tectonics. Lab 4: Question 18 Based solely on the hypsometric curves of Venus and Earth (Figure 7), we can conclude •  there is evidence for continental and oceanic crust, as well as plate tectonics on both Earth and Venus •  there is evidence for continental and oceanic crust on both planets, but only Earth has plate tectonics •  there is evidence for continental and oceanic crust, as well as plate tectonics only on Earth The diameter of Mars is approximately half that of Venus and Earth. Figure 8 below shows topographic maps of Mars from different viewpoints. Lab 4: Question 19 Examine Figure 8.  Which of the following processes are visible in a global topographic map of Mars?  Choose all that apply. •  volcanism (see small high spots that are individual volcanoes) •  tectonics (see grabens or rift valleys) •  impacts (see numerous round depressions that are impact craters) Lab 4: Question 20 Look at the map on the top of Figure 8.  Which of the following ranges of elevations represent the oldest Martian surfaces? •  highest elevations (white and red) •  high, but not highest elevations (yellow and orange) •  low, but not lowest elevations (green) •  lowest elevations (blue) Lab 4: Question 21 geologic feature is represented by the highest elevations (in white)? •  impact crater •  continent •  shield volcano Lab 4: Question 22 geologic feature is represented by the large violet-colored oval in the bottom right of the map (which is the lowest elevation surface on Mars)? •  impact crater •  continent •  shield volcano As shown in the figure below, a hot spot volcano forms when a stationary mantle plume (a column of hot rock rising from the deep mantle) gets near the surface and begins to melt. Magma works its way through cracks and creates a volcano. Because the Earth has plate tectonics, the movement of the plate pulls the volcano off of the mantle plume, causing the volcano to go extinct. Magma from the hot spot continues to erupt, creating a newer, younger volcano over the mantle plume.  Eventually, there is a long chain of progressively older extinct volcanoes spread out away from the hot spot. The islands and seamounts of the Hawaii-Emperor chain are an example of a hot spot island chain, and they allow us to calculate the speed and direction of the past motion of the Pacific plate. The Hawaiian islands formed as the Pacific plate moved over a stationary hot spot. The location of the hot spot is currently beneath the eastern side of the Big Island of Hawaii and an undersea volcano off the southeast coast of the Big Island known as Loihi. The Big Island of Hawaii has formed over a hot spot. The island is made of five large shield volcanoes (Figure 10): Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Kilauea, Hualalai, and Kohala. According to the , Kilauea is the youngest and most active of the five volcanoes, and has erupted almost continuously from 1983 to 2018. The volcanoes on the Big Island are scientifically important to Geology, Climatology, Ecology, and Astronomy (among other sciences). In addition, several Hawaiian volcanoes (most notably Mauna Kea) are sacred sites for native Hawaiians and have been used for native science and ceremony since ancient times. , the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes and fire is believed to reside at the summit of Kīlauea, within Halema‘uma‘u crater at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the Big Island. Pele is perceived as both creator and destroyer of land. We want to know if the rate (speed) and direction of motion of the Pacific plate has remained constant over time or if it has changed over time (and if so, how). Figure 11 shows the Hawaiian Islands (in the inset, with a scale bar). The numbers are the ages, in millions of years, of the volcanoes (when they formed). For example, there are two volcanic vents marked on Maui. One (Wailuku) formed 1.3 million years ago, the other (Haleakala) formed 0.8 million years ago. The Hawaiian Islands are part of a longer chain (the Hawaiian-Emperor chain) that includes islands such as Midway and undersea volcanic mountains (seamounts). These are shown in the larger map, again with dates in millions of years. On the larger map, the area that corresponds to the inset map has been colored a dark blue, and a large curving blue arrow connect this to the enlarged inset map. The first thing you need to do is determine the scales for both the larger map and the inset map.  A scale will tell you something like “1 inch on the map is equal to 60 miles in real life” or “1 cm on the map is equal to 40 km in real life”.  If you aren’t familiar with this, review in the Math Resource Module.  note that the scale that you determine will depend on how you view or print out Figure 11.  The figure below shows Figure 11 as viewed in two different browsers.  I put the same centimeter ruler in front of each screen shot.  The scales are not the same, because the field of view for the screen was not the same in each browser. Start by determining the scale on the inset map, as that map has a scale bar. Use a metric ruler to measure (in centimeters) the length of the scale bar (from 0 to 150 km).  Divide 150 km by the length in cm that you measured.  For example, if I have 4 cm = 150 km (the right hand example above), then I would have a scale of 1 cm = 37.5 km. You won’t be entering this part into the lab quiz. Now you need to determine the scale of the larger map (that shows the entire Hawaiian-Emperor chain).  To do this, you need to figure out how much the inset map (and its scale) has been enlarged.  So you need to compare the same length in both maps.  To do this, measure the length along the edge of the inset map in centimeters.  Do the calculations described below.  You don’t need to enter them into the lab quiz. Now measure the same TOP side of the same area (colored dark blue) on the bigger map (the area corresponding to the inset map is shaded dark blue on the bigger map; the edge you want is touching the curved arrow that connects the two maps). To determine the scale of the larger map, you need to take your answer for Step 2 Part A, multiply it by the scale you determined in Step 1, and then divide this number by your answer to Step 2 Part B. EQUATION 1:  Scale on the large map=edge length on inset map×scale of inset mapedge length on large map{“version”:”1.1″,”math”:”

Scale on the large map=edge length on inset map×scale of inset mapedge length on large map

“} Now use the two maps and their corresponding scales (from Step 1 and Step 3 above) to determine the distances between pairs of volcanoes. Be careful to use the correct scale for the map (inset or larger map) you are measuring. Also determine the difference in ages between that pair of volcanoes. Put your measurements in Table 2 (shown below). Notice that the last column is in “millions of years”, not years.  Table 2 and the graph for your data (also shown below) are both found in one document ( ; ). Table 2. Distances and formation ages between pairs of volcanoes Table 2 has 6 columns.  You will be plotting the data from the third column (real distance in km) and the sixth column (length of time in millions of years. When you have completed both Table 2 and the accompanying graph, upload your completed file to the assignment box (link below). UPLOAD TO FOR LAB 4 – hotspot-table-graph Examine the graph that you have just completed and answer the following questions. Lab 4: Question 23 Should your best fit line go through the point (0,0) on your graph? •  yes •  no Lab 4: Question 24 Explain the reason for your answer to Question 23, typing into the box provided.  This question is worth 5 points. Lab 4: Question 25 Has the Pacific plate moved at a constant rate (speed) over the last 60 million years? •  yes •  no Lab 4: Question 26 Explain the reason for your answer to Question 25, typing into the box provided.  This question is worth 5 points. Lab 4: Question 27 A line drawn from the origin (0,0) through just the HL data point will have a steeper slope than the best fit line. This tells us that the current speed of the Pacific plate is ______________ as its average speed over the last 60 million years. •  almost twice as fast •  about the same speed •  almost twice as slow Lab 4: Question 28 Looking back at Figure 11, which direction has the Pacific plate been moving for the last 40 million years (last 40 million year, not 60 million years)? •  to the northeast •  to the southeast •  to the southwest •  to the northwest Lab 4: Question 29 Between 50 and 60 million years ago, which direction was the Pacific plate moving? •  to the north •  to the east •  to the south •  to the west You will need to refer back to .  The main greenhouse gas in the atmosphere of Earth is carbon dioxide (CO2). Lab 4: Question 30 Which of the following are common greenhouse gases on Earth?  Choose all that apply. •  Nitrogen •  Water vapor •  Methane •  Oxygen •  Nitrous Oxide •  Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) – fluorinated gas Lab 4: Question 31 Which of the following terrestrial planets has the greatest greenhouse effect? •  Earth •  Mars •  Mercury •  Venus Lab 4: Question 32 Which of the following terrestrial planets has the smallest greenhouse effect? •  Earth •  Mars •  Mercury •  Venus We have been directly measuring the abundance of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere at an observatory near the summit of the Mauna Load volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii since 1958. “This is the longest continuous record of direct measurements of CO2 and it shows a steadily increasing trend from year to year; combined with a saw-tooth effect that is caused by changes in the rate of plant growth through the seasons. This curve is commonly known as the Keeling Curve, named after Charles Keeling, the American scientist who started the project. Why Mauna Loa? Early attempts to measure CO2 in the USA and Scandinavia found that the readings varied a lot due to the influence of growing plants and the exhaust from motors. Mauna Loa is ideal because it is so remote from big population centers. Also, on tropical islands at night, the prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea, which effect brings clean, well-mixed Central Pacific air from high in the atmosphere to the observatory. This removes any interference coming from the vegetation lower down on the island.” Quote from . We are able to get reliable, albeit less precise, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide farther back in time by looking at trapped bubbles of atmosphere in ice cores thousands of years old. Credit: A graph that plots the abundance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (on the y axis) as a function of time (on the x axis) is call a . Lab 4: Question 33 Examine Figure 14. The concentration of carbon dioxide is cycling up and down.  might be the cause of the variation? •  increased fossil fuel emissions during the summer, as more people go on vacation •  repeated eruptions of the nearby Kilauea volcano emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere •  cold air in winter is dryer, holding less carbon dioxide •  seasonal increases and decreases in plant growth (and therefore photosynthesis) Lab 4: Question 34 Examine Figure 15. How would you describe the concentration of carbon dioxide between the years 1700 and 1800? •  relatively constant •  increasing slightly •  increasing steeply Lab 4: Question 35 Examine Figure 15. How would you describe the concentration of carbon dioxide between the years 1850 and 1950? •  relatively constant •  increasing slightly •  increasing steeply Lab 4: Question 36 Examine Figure 15. How would you describe the concentration of carbon dioxide between the years 1960 and today? •  relatively constant •  increasing slightly •  increasing steeply Figure 16 (above) shows the abundance of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere for the past 800,000 years.  Low values of carbon dioxide occurred during global ice ages, while high levels of carbon dioxide occurred during warmer interglacial periods. For the past 10,000 years (since the end of the last ice age) up until about 1800, the abundance of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere was below 280 ppm (parts per million).  The abundance of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere on October 4, 2020 was 411 ppm. Lab 4: Question 37

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