Plant Practice Test answer choice with an UPPER CASE letter in the space provided. ____ 1. Although there are similarities between animal and fungal digestion, there is a major difference.

Plant Practice Test answer choice with an UPPER CASE letter in the space provided. ____ 1. Although there are similarities between animal and fungal digestion, there is a major difference. Identify this difference. A. Animal digestion uses enzymes; fungal digestion does not. B. Only animals begin the digestive process outside the body. C. Larger nutrient molecules are absorbed through the animal cell membrane than through fungal cell membranes. D. A fungus will digest nutrient matter outside of its body. E. Under certain conditions, fungi can produce their own nutrients. ____ 2. When a haploid “plus” mating type fungal cell fuses with a haploid “minus” mating type cell, this can lead to a single cell containing two haploid nuclei called a A. spore. B. dikaryon. C. fruiting body. D. haploid-diploid. E. fusion product. A. gametophyte generation. B. embryo. C. sporophyte generation. D. diploid generation. E. zygote. ____ 4. In bryophytes, the rhizoids A. serve as attachment structures. B. obtain nutrients. C. obtain water. D. lure possible prey. E. are involved in reproduction. ____ 5. The vascular transport tubes of plants are reinforced with A. cellulose. B. chitin. C. rhizoids. D. mycorrhizae. E. lignin. ____ 6. In gymnosperms, the formation of the female gametophyte takes place in the A. microspores. B. megaspores. C. macrospores. D. ovule. E. rhizomes. ____ 7. All of the following are parts of a flower except the A. carpel. B. stamen. C. ovary. D. fruit. E. cuticle. ____ 8. Arrange the following characteristics in order from the earliest to the most recent to evolve. 1. fruits 2. ovules 3. multicellular embryos 4. vascular system 5. alternation of generations A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 B. 3, 2, 4, 5, 1 C. 5, 2, 4, 3, 1 D. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1 E. 3, 5, 4, 2, 1 ____ 9. Which of the following is an adaptation to land characteristic of gymnosperms but not ferns? A. seeds B. spores C. vascular system D. alternation of generations E. flowers ____ 10. Which of the following are adaptations to land of both gymnosperms and angiosperms but are lacking in ferns and mosses? A. pollen and seeds B. fruits and flowers C. vascular system D. true roots, stems, and leaves E. spores ____ 11. Which of the following plant groups specifically need water for sperm transport? A. mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants B. mosses, ferns, conifers C. mosses, ferns D. mosses only E. flowering plants only Name: ______________________ ID: A 2 ____ 12. Which plant group has a dominant gametophyte generation when compared to the sporophyte generation? A. flowering plants B. gymnosperms C. ferns D. horsetails E. bryophytes ____ 13. Which of the following is an adaptation to land seen in ferns but not in mosses? A. vascular system B. alternation of generations C. ovules D. seeds E. spores Text Section:12.3 – plant evolution, adaptation to land ____ 14. The principal criterion used to classify fungi into divisions (the equivalent of phyla) is A. the pigments found in the hyphal cells. B. the components of their cell walls. C. the biochemistry of their plasma membranes. D. the morphology of the sexual spore-bearing structures. E. the pattern of cilia on their external surfaces. ____ 15. Unlike land plants, green algae do not have A. chlorophyll b. B. carotenoids. C. embryos. D. diploid generations. E. flagellated cells. ____ 16. In algae and plants with a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations, the _____ produces spores by ______. A. zygote; meiosis B. gametophyte; mitosis C. gametophyte; meiosis D. sporophyte: mitosis E. sporophyte; meiosis seed plants? A. male and female gametes that look the same B. male and female gametes produced by mitosis C. sporophytes and gametophytes that look the same D. diploid spores E. fertilization in the open water ____ 18. Plants have adapted to dry land by evolving all of the following except A. association with mycorrhizae to improve mineral uptake. B. secreting a waxy coating to prevent water loss. C. forms of chlorophyll more efficient at capturing light. D. tissues to conduct water through the plant. E. structures to protect reproductive cells and embryos. ____ 19. In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions light-independent reactions. D. lead to carbon fixation. E. produce ATP and NADPH. ____ 20. Which of the following does not take place during the first of the two phases of photosynthesis? A. Light energy is absorbed by electrons in the chlorophyll. B. Water is split. C. Atp and electron carriers are formed. D. Carbon dioxide is fixed. E. Oxygen is released. ____ 21. Choose the process that does not occur during the light-trapping phase of photosynthesis. A. Water is split. B. ATP is produced. C. NADPH is produced. D. Oxygen is released. E. Carbon dioxide is fixed. ____ 22. During the Calvin-Benson cycle, in the red Columbine plant, high-energy electrons from NADPH are transferred into a newly made 3-carbon compound. Eventually these electrons will end up as part of glucose molecules. was the original source of these electrons in photosynthesis? Name: ______________________ ID: A 3 ____ 23. Which color of light has the least important role in photosynthesis? A. red B. green C. blue D. orange E. indigo ____ 24. Roots function in all of the following except A. storage of food. B. production of food. C. anchorage and support of the plant. D. absorption of water. E. absorption of minerals. ____ 25. The endodermis of a root A. regulates the transport of water and minerals into the vascular system. B. produces root hairs for the absorption of water and minerals. C. produces lateral roots in woody dicotyledons. D. transports starch to parenchyma cells for storage. E. produces starch in the roots of dicotyledons. ____ 26. Which of the following is true regarding primary growth in a plant? A. Primary growth increases the height of a plant. B. Primary growth results in woody tissue. C. Primary growth arises from apical meristems. D. All the above are true. E. Only a and c are true. ____ 27. Which of the following statements regarding leaf structure and function is not true? A. Most photosynthesis takes place in the palisade mesophyll. B. Most stomata are usually found on the upper epidermis rather than the lower. C. The palisade mesophyll is more densely packed than the spongy mesophyll. D. A waxy cuticle covers the epidermis of many leaves. E. The epidermis of many leaves has associated trichomes. ____ 28. Which of the following is mismatched? A. netted veination – dicotyledons B. vascular bundles distributed throughout the stem – monocotyledons C. one cotyledon – monocotyledons D. floral parts in multiples of four or five – dicotyledons E. true secondary growth – monocotyledons ____ 29. Which of the following dicotyledon root tissues/cells are in order from the outside of the root to the inside? A. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular tissue B. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, endodermis, vascular tissue C. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, vascular tissue, endodermis D. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, vascular tissue, pericycle E. epidermis, pericycle, cortex, endodermis, vascular tissue ____ 30. The ancestor to all plants is believed to be A. a green alga. B. a red alga. C. a brown alga, like kelp. D. a diatom. E. a sea grass. ____ 31. The tip of the stem (the shoot tip) contains the A. apical meristem. B. lateral meristem. C. intercalary meristem D. lateral buds. E. endodermis. ____ 32. This type of tissue provides the primary support and strength in the shoot system. A. dermal tissue B. epidermal tissue C. cortical tissue D. parenchyma E. vascular tissue ____ 33. Following fertilization, an ovary will develop into ____________, whereas an ovule will become ______________. A. a. a fruit; a seed B. an embryo; a fruit C. a seed; an embryo D. a female gametophyte; a seed E. a fruit; a female gametophyte ____ 34. Double fertilization occurs when A. one sperm unites with an egg and another sperm unites with the central cell of the female gametophyte. B. two sperm unite with one egg. C. two sperm unite with the central cell. D. one sperm unites with the egg and another sperm unites with the male gametophyte. E. one sperm unites with the egg and another sperm unites with a pollen grain. Name: ______________________ ID: A 4 ____ 35. part of a plant actually feeds the majority of people on earth? A. root B. stem C. leaf D. endosperm E. meristem ____ 36. The period following dormancy of a seed is called A. germination. B. abscission. C. guttation. D. scarification. E. desiccation. ____ 37. Which of the plant growth regulator(s) is actually a gas? A. phytochrome B. ethylene C. abscisic acid D. cytokinins E. auxins ____ 38. This group of plant growth regulators are typically produced in the apical meristems of shoots, diffusing downward to the roots. A. gibberellins B. ethylene C. abscisic acid D. phytochrome E. auxins ____ 39. Water moves up a plant via A. capillaries. B. phloem. C. xylem. D. stomates. E. panicles. ____ 40. structure prevents water from moving between cells of the endodermis of the plant root? A. Casparian strip B. Okazaki fragments C. sclerids D. collenchyma E. sclerenchyma ____ 41. Plants lose water primarily A. by passing it out of the stomata. B. by evaporation from the surface of the epidermis. C. by evaporation from the cuticle. D. by loss to the phloem. E. by translocation. ____ 42. type of chemical bond allows for the unique characteristics of water (cohesion, adhesion, and capillary action)? A. ionic bonds B. covalent bonds C. hydrogen bonds D. oxide bonds E. James Bond Matching Match the following trait with the correct adaptive advantage. A. increases the chances of pollination B. protection from desiccation C. decreases predation D. increases gas exchange E. allows movement of nutrients and water throughout plant F. increases chance of wide dispersal of offspring ____ 43. Vascular systems ____ 44. Flowers ____ 45. Seeds and fruits ____ 46. Cuticles ____ 47. Stomata Match the following characteristics with the correct group of plants. A. flowering plants B. ferns C. mosses D. algae E. pine trees ____ 48. These land plants have a more conspicuous gametophyte than sporophyte generation. ____ 49. These are the first land plants that produced ovules. ____ 50. This group does not generally produce multicellular embryos. Name: ______________________ ID: A 5 ____ 51. The ovules of these plants are encased in a “vessel.” ____ 52. This group of land plants was the first to evolve xylem and phloem. Match the following plant structures with the proper taxonomic group. A. monocots B. eudicots ____ 53. lack secondary growth ____ 54. parallel veins in the leaf, not branching ____ 55. vascular bundles in a ring in the stem ____ 56. two seed leaves formed in the seed ____ 57. a highly branching, shallow fibrous root system Match the following plant hormones with their appropriate function. A. This hormone is primarily responsible for the phototropic response. B. Dwarf plants are deficient in this hormone. C. This hormone causes leaves to drop and fruits to ripen. D. This hormone counteracts growth regulators and causes dormancy. E. This hormone stimulates cell division and the activation of lateral buds. ____ 58. auxin ____ 59. gibberellin ____ 60. cytokinin ____ 61. abscisic acid ____ 62. ethylene Match the following cells/tissues with the proper chromosome number. A. diploid B. haploid C. triploid D. hexaploid ____ 63. a mature flowering plant ____ 64. microspores ____ 65. megaspores ____ 66. endosperm ____ 67. zygote Match the following terms with the proper description. A. evaporative water loss via the leaves B. cells that transport water and dissolved minerals C. water molecules that stick together by hydrogen bonding D. water traveling short distances in small tubes E. water molecules attracted to the cellulose cell walls of xylem cells ____ 68. cohesion ____ 69. capillary action ____ 70. adhesion ____ 71. transpiration ____ 72. xylem

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